Disclaimer/Question of Proof Page
Oceanic Amber is a new experimental Scientific Aroma Therapy scent that delivers a memorable olfactory aromatic experience.
It has also been designed with the objective of promoting a feeling of well being and relaxation that could prove beneficial to those who suffer from anxiety.
Oceanic Amber cannot and does not guarantee to deliver such a benefit as it has not been the subject of any specific formal clinical trials.
No adverse effects of occasional sniffing of this and related scents have been reported during more than 30 years of research in this area.
It should be remembered that even in case of the most heavy-duty brain drugs for depression created by the multinational drug companies, no guarantee of efficacy for a particular patient is offered and it is often the case that psychiatrists have to try several different types of drugs before an effective one is identified (in fairness to the drug companies, the new era of personal genetic profiling may solve this problem).
We encourage users to provide feedback regarding their experience with Oceanic Amber – both in terms of it as an enjoyable aromatic experience and, if applicable, any relaxation related benefits experienced.
It should also be noted that we offer a Money Back Guarantee for the product if purchasers do not find the product provides an enjoyable or beneficial experience.
The Question of Proof of Efficacy is far from straight forward in this field – as discussed below.
The Question of Proof
Measuring changes in anxiety levels in the ‘real’ world is acknowledged to be at the difficult end of the spectrum of measures available to psychopharmacology. In fact, it is so difficult that even some of the world’s biggest pharmaceutical companies have given up trying to do research on this topic, despite its importance to society.
We have a strong background of research spanning many areas of smell research. . In some of these areas such as our enzyme work we have strong size effects and no statistical analysis is necessary to establish the facts. In these cases replicability is straightforward.
In other cases such as our mapping of a receptor for small fatty acids, the experiments are complex and require special equipment that has to be constructed and careful analysis of the data is required.
By far the most difficult area of smell research relates to the measurement of moods and emotions and feelings in response to a scent. There are two principal approaches to this type of work and we have experience of both types.
(a) Physiological measurements
(b) Subjective assessments
The great goal is to have objective physiological measures, ranging from inexpensive methods for measuring the galvanic skin response to the most recent (and most likely very expensive) brain imaging equipment. But success using these measures in olfactory experiments is modest and is beset by a number of difficulties including the following –
- These experiments require subjects to be immobilized in special equipment in a laboratory setting. These conditions are far removed from the experience in the ‘real’ everyday world.
- There are often marked novelty effects that give difficulties in replication of effects.
- It is difficult to track the measures over long periods of time.
- The circumstances often engender a degree of anxiety.
It is interesting to note that recently some approaches using methodology from economics research are being used (these are discussed in references  & ). The use of small computer-driven equipment allows measures to be taken in ‘real’ life and they are starting to have an impact on the field.
The developing field of emotions recognition through a sophisticated analysis of video tape capturing of behavior is a new development with a lot of potential, but it too is powerless to reveal the mind pictures and experienced emotional richness of the individual subjective experience.
One of the great difficulties with all of these techniques is that they fail to disclose the detailed subjective experiences (feelings, emotions, memories, mind-pictures) that the subject is experiencing. This is very evident in our aroma and scent master classes. The diversity of subjective emotional reactions to a sniffing of a pure single type of odorant on a smelling strip is striking, enormous and unpredictable, reflecting the individuality of our sense of smell.
A good account of such methods are given in reference . Various kinds of rating scales and questionnaires are frequently used but it is widely recognized that it is difficult to rate subjective features of olfactory experiences (eg – pleasure) and simultaneously enjoy the full in effable emotional response. Examples of emotional rating scales in smell research are given in reference .
Rating scales and the like are the standard methods in sensory analysis of foods and beverages and suffice to allow preference ranking of samples, the practical task for which they are often employed. But they are blunt and interfering instruments when it comes to allowing a subject to describe their full subjective experience of both pleasant aromas [enjoyment; joyfulness; ecstasy; specific positive memories] and to unpleasant aromas [anxiety; fear; disgust; terror; specific negative memories]. The powerful immediacy of a strong emotional reaction to a significant scent has to be put aside as you focus on the cognitive task of rating your experience.
It is significant that the full subjective feelings in response to powerful scents and aromas are often better expressed in poetry and novels than in scientific papers. Examples are given on the web site for World Smell Day [www.worldsmellday.com].
Dr Dodd has reported that during personal perfume creation sessions with clients, both individuality and in small groups, he covertly looks for subtle body language signs of emotion and that he finds that in such a ‘real-world’ evaluation of feelings evoked by aromas and scents this is a much more reliable guide to what a client is experiencing than any kind of formal assessment using rating methods or similar techniques. In addition, clients are encouraged to express their feelings and mind pictures and in the confidential atmosphere of personal perfume making they often have no hesitation in revealing the intensely personal nature of the scent-evoked moods and feelings. Further information is given in appendix .
Testing The Efficacy of the Oceanic Family of Scientific Aroma Therapy Scents
By way of background we note that even in conventional pharmacology it is recognized that it is difficult to establish the efficacy of anti-anxiety drugs in conventional clinical trials.
Classical double-blinded placebo controlled trials are notoriously difficult with modern powerful anti-anxiety drugs. The effect size is often small and the differences between placebo and active are often so small as to be questionable. In the period up to the 1990s when pharmaceutical companies were not required to register and to be transparent about their trials for anxiety, it is an open secret that they performed numerous trials - many with modest effects and they suppressed the trials that did not yield a positive effect.
In the new times in which all trials have to be registered and scrutinized – many of the major drug companies have ceased research on anti-anxiety drugs because of the poor quality of the trials results.
For the reasons cited above we have not endeavoured to measure the relief clients get from sniffing our scientific aroma formulations. If the effects work for them they tell us and they come back and purchase more. If the effects do not work for them (possibly because of a specific smell blindness (anosmia) or because of an unusual profile of active scent receptors) they do not come back and purchase again. What is significant for their lives is that no side effects are experienced in contrast to the marked side effects that are reported for most brain drugs including those prescribed for relief of anxiety. We have found in practice that a majority of clients using these aromas experience some benefit.
Our Position On Claims of Efficacy
We would like to report that our claims are backed by robust, blinded, placebo-controlled trials that reveal strong effect sizes. However; this is simply not possible given the complexity of both olfactory experiments and also the complexity of measuring responses. In this respect we are on an equal footing with the drug approaches used by the multinational pharmaceutical companies.
We know that clients, who frequently discover the psychological benefits of our scents accidentally during the course of personal perfume creations, tell us that the scents work for them, helping them to have more positive feelings and so relieving feelings of anxiety
We note that several products claiming to effect changes in feelings of well-being (implying some degree of relief from anxiety) but for which no reported clinical trials are reported; are found on the web site of reputable pharmacies in the UK. These products are also found on the shelves of super-markets.
Typical claims from such products include ;.
‘traditional herbal remedy containing a blend of pure plant ingredients that can bring welcome relief from worry and irritability often caused by the stresses and strains of modern living’
“promote natural sleep, and can also bring relief to symptoms associated with the menopause including wakefulness, flushings and cold sweats.’
We believe that we can make modest similar claims along the lines of …Scientific Aroma Therapy Scents are a blend of synthetic and natural scent molecules that can bring welcome relief from anxiety and worry often caused by the strains and stresses of modern living.
It should be borne in mind that many of these other well being products are actually ingested and therefore have a clear possibility of side effects. In contrast, the concentrations of Scientific Aroma Therapy Scents entering the body through natural occasional sniffing is insignificant and no side effects have ever been reported to us over a period of three decades.
 List of Some Research Papers by George Dodd (attached below)
 Neuroeconomics: Decision Making and The Brain (eds P.W. Glimcher & E. Fehr), 2014.
 Happiness by Design: Finding Pleasure and Purpose in Everyday Life (P .Dolan), 2014.
 Ageing and the Sense of Smell. (S. Van Toller; G.H. Dodd; & A. Billing), 1985.
 Dr Dodd has been a pioneer in the new activity of creating personal perfumes, an activity he started in the 1960s.
In the course of this work he discovered by working with individual clients that some novel synthetic, nature-identical and natural scent molecules had the power to help clients with the condition of anxiety. This discovery was prompted by the clients themselves and was not actively sought during the consultation.
In any one situation in creating a personal perfume, clients will clearly feel and will clearly state that they feel – more relaxed when they sniff specific aroma molecules.
Through decades of personal perfume creation, a library of scent molecules that give this relaxation or feel-good effect has been identified. The effect is a general one (suggestive of an intrinsic non-learned response but no evidence is available on this point). As would be expected from any psychopharmacological effects, there is a spectrum of efficacy reflecting a personal distribution of receptor types.
Using the library of identified relaxing or feel-good scents (some of which are used in conventional perfumery for feel-good effects without any allusion to worry or stress) it is found that some clients have a mild positive response whereas others have a strong response. The Oceanic Amber scent has a number of scent molecules so that most people will have a positive response.
Relevant Research Papers by Dr G. H. Dodd.
Dr. George Dodd
[ 2016 ]
George Dodd started World Smell Day in 1988 before the web age came of age. His aim was simple, to encourage people in all parts of the world to take an interest in the oft-forgotten sense of smell. He was particularly aware that the sensory pleasures of smelling aromas and scents can contribute greatly to your sense of well-being.
Most of George’s life has been a ‘smell’ life and he is, uniquely, both a perfumer and a sense-of-smell scientist. Amongst his achievements have been the creation of one of the world’s biggest academic research groups working on the sense of smell at the University of Warwick, the creation of the world’s 1st smell biotechnology company – Kiotech int plc and the world’s 1st scent dating evening at the London Science Museum. He is especially happy at having World Smell Day as one of his legacies to the world. He is in the course of starting a charity – The Aroma Foundation – that will be another scent legacy. He worked in a psychiatric hospital for some years and gave creative perfumery courses to patients as part of their arts therapy programme. This has never been done before and the beneficial effects were very evident. The aim of the charity is to get creative perfumery work going in the psychiatric community throughout the world.
Research papers and other items concerned with the sense of smell and related items that are relevant to the topic of Therapeutic Scents for Helping With Anxiety.
Papers Concerned with Small Molecule Regulation of Enzyme Activity; A Major theme in Biochemistry in the 1960s and was; I made the assumption (correctly); the key step in the first stages of odorant-induced activity in the primary olfactory Neurones.
(1967) Dodd, G.H. & Radda, G.K.
Interaction of Glutamate Dehydrogenase with Fluorescent Dyes.
Biochim. Biophys. Res. Commun., 27, 500-4
(1968) Dodd, G.H. & Radda, G.K.
Biochem. J., 108, 5p.
(1969) Dodd, G.H. & Radda, G.K.
1-Anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate, a Fluorescent Conformational Probe for Glutamate Dehydrogenase.
Biochem. J., 114, 407-417.
Barrat, M.D., Dodd, G.H. & Chapman, D.
A spin label for tyrosine residues
Biochim Biophys Acta 194, 600-2.
(1970) Dodd, G.H., Barratt, M.D. & Rayner, L.
Spin probes for binding site polarity.
FEBS Lett. 8, 286-288.
1973) Dodd, G.H.
The Interaction of Glutamate Dehydrogenase and Malate Dehydrogenase with Phospholipid Membranes.*
Eur. J. Biochem., 33, 418-427.
(1974) Interaction of Glutamate Dehydrogenase with Detergents and Phospholipid Membranes.
Nemat-Gorgani, M. & Dodd, G.H.
Biochem.Soc. Trans. 2, 969-971.
(1987) Wood, M.A., Dickinson, K., Willey, G.R., & Dodd, G.H.
Binding of aromatic isonitriles to haemoglobin & Myoglobin.
Biochem. J., 247, 675-8.
Papers Concerned with Phospholipids; a key component of the cell membranes of the primary olfactory neurons.
(1976) Ramirez, F., Ioannou, P.V., Marecek, J.F., Golding, B.T., & Dodd, G.H
Application of Cyclic Enediol Pyrophosphates to the Synthesis of Phospholipids. Diphosphatidylglycerol (Cardiolipin)
Synthesis 1976 , (11) 769-770.
(1976) Dodd, G.H., Golding, B.T. & Ioannou, P.V.
Preparation of glycerols protected at the 2-hydroxy-group and their application to the synthesis of lipids.
J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1, 2273-2277.
(1976) Ramirez, F., Ionannou, P., Marecek, J.F., Nowakowski, M., Golding, B.T.; & Dodd, G.H.
A New Technique in Phospholipid Synthesis. Sequential Removal of Acetoinyl(3-Oxo-2-butyl) and t-Buty-dimethylsilyl Groups from Alkyl Acetoinyl 2-O-Silyl-glyceryl Phosphotriesters.
Synthesis 1976 (7)483-484.
(1977) Ramirez, F., Ionannou, P.V., Marecek, J.F., Dodd, G.H. & Golding, B.T.
Synthesis of phospholipids by means of cyclic enediol pyrophosphates: Optically active monovalent and divalent cation salts of diphosphatidylglycerol (Cardiolipin).
Tetrahedron 33, 599-608.
(1979) Ioannou, P.V., Dodd, G.H. & Golding, B.T.
Improved Synthesis of Saturated 1,2-Diacyl –sn-glycerols.
Synthesis 1979 (12) , 939-941.
(1989) Evans, P. & Dodd, G.H.
Erythrocyte Fatty Acids in Multiple Sclerosis.
Acta Neurologica Scand., 80, 501-3.
(1989) Russell, Y., Evans, P. & Dodd, G.H.
Characterization of the total lipid and fatty acid composition of rat olfactory mucosa.
J. Lipid Res., 30, 877-84.
(1996) Dodd, G.H.
The lipid membrane hypothesis of Schizophrenia: implications for possible clinical breath tests.
Prostoglandins Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids. 55, 95-9.
Papers concerned with the molecular mechanisms of chemoreception in simple organisms (regarded as model systems for the human and mammalian olfactory systems)
(1976) Doughty, M.J. & Dodd, G.H.
Fluorimetric determination of the resting potential changes associated with the chemotactic response in Paramecium.
Biochim Biophys Acta 451, 592-603.
(1978) Doughty, M.J. & Dodd, G.H.
Chemical modification of the excitable membrane in Paramecium Aurelia: effect of a cross-liking reagent.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol C. 59, 21-31.
(1979) Barber, R., Primrose, S & Dodd, G.H.
Photoaffinity labeling of a tyrosine chemoreceptor in Pseudomonas.
FEBS Lett. 105, 43-6.
Papers concerned with the molecular mechanisms of odorant activation of the primary olfactory neurons (the first crucial stage in olfaction).
These were some of the first ever biochemical studies on olfactory receptor mechanisms.
(1970) Cherry, R.J., Dodd, G.H. & Chapman, D.
Small molecule – lipid membrane interactions and the puncturing theory of olfaction.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 211, 409-16.
[ one of the first biochemical studies on olfaction and also one of the first papers on artificial noses ]
(1970) Dodd, G.H.
The Adenosine triphosphatase activities of the olfactory mucosae of some common animals.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 36, 633-7.
(1971) Dodd, G.H.
Studies on olfactory receptor mechanisms.
Biochem, J., 123, 31-2.
(1974) Dodd, G.JH
Molecular mechanisms in olfaction
In Transduction Mechanisms in Chemoreception, ed Poynder, T.M.
(1976) Dodd, G.H.
Structure-activity relationships in chemoreception.
In Structure-Activity Relationships in Chemoreception, (ed) G. Benz, IRL, London, pp.1-9.
(1976) Menco, B.P., Dodd, G.H., Davey, M. & Bannister, L.H.*
Presence of membrane particles in freeze-etched bovine olfactory cilia.
Nature, 263, 597-9.
[ the first visualization of olfactory receptors ]
(1977) Menevse, A., Dodd, G. & Poynder, T.M. (1977)*
Evidence for the specific involvement of cyclic AMP in the olfactory transduction mechanism
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 77, 671-677.
[ one of the first papers on the identification of the major smell receptor mechanism ]
(1977) Menevse, A., Dodd, G.H., Poynder, T.M., & Squirrel, D.
A Chemical Modification Approach to the olfactory code.
Biochem. Soc. Trans., 5, 191-4.
(1978) Menco, B.P., Leunissen, J.L., Bannister, L.H. & Dodd, G.H.
Bovine olfactory and nasal respiratory epithelium surfaces. High-voltage and scanning electron microscopy, and cryo-ultramicrotomy.
Cell. Tissue Res., 193, 503-24.
(1980) Skinner, M., Lovett, S. & Dodd, G.H.
Inhibition of Olfactory Cytochromes P448.
In Nasal Carcinogenesis in Rodents, Relevance to Human Health Risk. Eds V. Feron & M.
C.Bosland. Pudoc. Wagingen, p228.
(1980) Dodd, G.H. & Squirrell, D.J.
Structure and Mechanism in the mammalian olfactory system.
In Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond., 45, 35-56.
(1981) Shirley, S.G., Polak, E. & Dodd, G.H.
Chemical modification of the olfactory epithelium.
Biochem. Soc. Trans., 9, 108-109.
(1981) Dodd, G.H. & Persaud, K.
Biochemical mechanisms in vertebrate primary olfactory neurons.
In Biochemistry of Taste and Olfaction (eds) R.H. Cagan and M.R. Kare; Academic Press, pp333-57.
(1983) Shirley, S.G., Polak, E.H. & Dodd, G.H.
Chemical-modification studies on rat olfactory mucosa using a thiol-specific reagent and enzymatic iodination.
Eur. J. Biochem., 132, 485-94.
(1986) Shirley, S.G., Robinson, C.J. & Dodd, G.H.
The influence of temperature and membrane-fluidity changes on olfactory cyclase of the rat.
Biochem. J., 245, 613—6.
(1986) Shirley, S.G., Robinson, C.J., Dickinson, K., Aujla, R. & Dodd, G.H. (1986)
Olfactory adenylate cyclase of the rat: Stimulation by odorants and inhibition by Ca2 +
(1987) Edwards, D., Mather, R., Shirley, S. & Dodd, G.H.
Evidence for an olfactory receptor which responds to nicotine – nicotine as an odorant.
Experienta 43, 868-73.
(1987) Shirley, S.G., Polak, E.H., Edwards, D.A., Wood, M.A. & Dodd, G.H. (1987)
The effect of concanavalin A on the rat electro-olfactogram at various odorant concentrations
(1987) Shirley, S.G., Polak, E.H., Mather, R.A. & Dodd, G.H. (1987)
The effect of concanavalin A on the rat electro-olfactogram: Differential inhibition of odorant response
(1988) Dodd, G.H.
The Molecular Dimension in Perfumery. In Perfumery: The Psychology and Biology of Fragrance, (eds) S Van Toller & G H Dodd. Chapman and Hall, London & New York, pp 19-46.
(1988) Jenner, J. & Dodd, G.H.
The interaction of metyrapone and alpha-napththoflavone with rat olfactory cytochrome P-450.
Biochem. Pharmacol., 37, 558-9.
(1988) Mather, R.A. & Dodd, G.H
The Delivery of an aqueous aerosol containing non-volatile odorants to the olfactory epithelium of the rat.
Chemical Senses 13, 247-255.
(1988) Jenner, J. & Dodd, G.H.
Xenobiotic metabolism in nasal epithelia.
Drug Metabolism & Drug Interactions, 6, 558-9.
(1988) Spatial variation in response to odorants on the rat olfactory epithelium.
Edwards, A.A., Mather, R.A. & Dodd, G.J.
Experientia 44, 208-11.
(1988) Persaud, K., Pelosi, P. & Dodd, G.H.
Binding and metabolism of the urinous odorant androstanone in sheep olfactory mucosa.
Chemical Senses, 13, 231-45.
(1989) Polak, E.H., Shirley, S.G., & Dodd, G.H. (1989)
Concanavalin A reveals olfactory receptors which discriminate between alkane odorants on the basis of size
(1989) Robinson, C.J., Shirley, S.G., & Dodd, G.H.
The detergent Solulan C-24 reveals properties of the olfactory adenylate cyclase system.
Biochem. J., 247, 657-8.
(1992) Bland, R., Lovett, S., & Dodd, G.H.
Studies on the role of ascorbic acid in olfactory tissue.
Biochem. Soc. Trans. 20, p 199.
Papers concerned with Electronic Noses (eNoses) – conceived as both practical devices and also models systems for olfaction
(1982) Persaud, K. & Dodd, G.
Analysis of discrimination mechanisms in the mammalian olfactory system using a model nose
Nature 299, 352 – 355.
[ the first paper on electronic nose technology ]
(1987) Barker, J.R., Bartlett, P.N., Dodd, G.H. Hayat, U., Fard, A. & Shurmer, H.V.
Development of an Electronic Nose.
Physics in Technology 18, 170-176.
(1987) Hayat, U., Bartlett, P.N., Dodd, G.H. & Barker, J.R.
Electrochemical synthesis and study of polydiphenylamine.
J. Electroanal. Chem., 220, 287-294.
(1990) Gardner, J.W., Bartlett, P.N., Dodd, G.H. & Shurmer, H.V.
The Design of An Artifical Olfactoy System. In Chemosensory Information Processing. Ed. D. Schild. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 131-75.
(1991) Dodd, G., Bartlett, P. & Gardner, J.
Complex sensor systems: odour detection by the sense of smell and by electronic noses
Biochemical Society Transactions 19, 36–39.
Papers and Books concerned with the new field (pioneered by the Warwick Olfaction Research Group) – The Psychology of Perfumery
(1980) Dodd, G.H.
Why some can smell and others can’t.
Cosmetic World News 68, 10-
(1983) Van Toller., Kirk-Smith, M., Wood, N., Lombard, J. & Dodd, G.H.
Skin conductance and subjective assessments associated with the odour of 5-alpha-androstan-3-one. Biological Psychology, 16, 85-107.
(1983) Kirk-Smith, M., Van Toller, C. & Dodd, G.*
Unconscious odour conditioning in human subjects.
Biological Psychology, 17, 221-31.
(1985) Van Toller, S., Dodd, G.H. & Billings, A.
Ageing and the Sense of Smell.
C.C. Thomas, Springfield, IL.
(1983) Dodd, G.H. & Van Toller, C.
The Biology and Psychology of Perfumery.
Perfumer & Flavorist, 8, 1-14.
(1988) Presbyosmia and olfactory compensation for the elderly.
Van Toller, S. & Dodd, G.H.
Br. J. Clin. Prac. 41, 725-8.
(1988) Van Toller, S. & Dodd, G.H. (eds)*
Perfumery: The Psychology and Biology of Fragrance. Chapman and Hall, London.
(1992) Van Toller, S. & Dodd, G.H. (eds)
Fragrance: The Psychology and Biology of Perfume. Elsevier Applied Science.
[these two books were the conference volumes on the first ever international conferences in the new field of the Psychology of Perfumery (POP), ]; held at the University of Warwick.
(1970) Dodd, G.
Wordsworth & Hamilton
Nature, 228, 1261-1263.
(1979) Dodd, G.
The Story of a Stolen Smell.
New Scientist 20/27
It Was Christmas Day in the Smell Lab. Biochemist, 13, 14-16.
Scents & Sensibility
Aroma Training Manuals
(The Aroma Academy & The Perfume Academy)
Whisky Aroma Kit: Your Route to Expertise in Whisky
(The Aroma Academy, UK)
Wine Aroma Kit: Your route to Expertise in Wine.
(The Aroma Academy, UK)
Gin Aroma Kit: Your Route to Expertise in Gin.
(The Aroma Academy, UK)
Introduction to Creative Perfumery.
(The Perfume Academy, UK)
Advanced Perfume Creation.
(The Perfume Academy, UK).
( for 2013)
Introduction to Pheromone Perfumes.
(The Perfume Academy, UK)
Kiiotech int plc – 1990s – the first patents on the use of human pheromones as fish attractants (this resulted in Kiotech entering the London AIM exchange).
Scotia Pharmaceuticals plc – 1990s. A breath test for monitoring the progress of schizophrenic patients.
Medaro Medical Ltd – ~2006 - the world’s first medical perfume (Scentuelle).
Several TV and radio programmes in the period 1980 – present
Various exhibtions with artists.
Popular talks to many organizations and Science Festivals